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  • Emily Peaker

The Role of Biomechanics in Running: A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding Your Body's Movement


Running is a complex activity that involves the coordination of muscles, joints, and bones to propel the body forward. At the heart of this movement lies biomechanics, the science that explores how the human body moves and interacts with its environment. Understanding the biomechanics of running is essential for optimising performance, preventing injuries, and enhancing overall running experience. In this blog, we'll delve into the fascinating world of biomechanics in running and how it impacts every aspect of your stride.


  1. Foot Strike Patterns: The way your foot makes contact with the ground, known as foot strike, is a fundamental aspect of running biomechanics. There are three primary foot strike patterns: heel strike, midfoot strike, and forefoot strike. Heel strikers land on their heel first, midfoot strikers land on the middle of their foot, and forefoot strikers land on their toes. Each foot strike pattern has its advantages and implications for running efficiency, injury risk, and energy expenditure. Understanding your foot strike pattern can help you choose appropriate footwear and make adjustments to improve your running form.


  1. Gait Analysis: Gait analysis is a valuable tool used by biomechanists, physiotherapists, and coaches to assess how individuals move while running. By analysing parameters such as stride length, cadence, and joint angles, gait analysis provides insights into biomechanical inefficiencies and asymmetries that may impact performance or predispose runners to injury. With the help of advanced technology such as motion capture systems and pressure sensors, gait analysis can offer a detailed assessment of running mechanics and guide personalised interventions to optimise performance and reduce injury risk.


  1. Running Efficiency: Biomechanics plays a crucial role in determining running efficiency—the ability to cover distance with minimal energy expenditure. Efficient runners optimise their biomechanics to reduce wasted motion, maximise propulsion, and maintain a steady pace. Factors such as stride length, cadence, arm swing, and trunk stability all contribute to running efficiency. By fine-tuning these biomechanical parameters through targeted training and technique adjustments, runners can improve their running economy and performance.


  1. Biomechanical Risk Factors: Certain biomechanical factors may increase the risk of developing running-related injuries. For example, overpronation (excessive inward rolling of the foot) can contribute to issues such as shin splints, plantar fasciitis, and knee pain. Similarly, excessive hip drop or knee valgus (inward collapse of the knee) during running may predispose runners to IT band syndrome and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Identifying and addressing these biomechanical risk factors through strength training, mobility exercises, and gait modifications is essential for injury prevention and long-term running success.


  1. Individual Variation: It's important to recognize that biomechanics is highly individualised, with variations in anatomy, physiology, and running experience influencing how each person moves. What works well for one runner may not necessarily be optimal for another. Therefore, it's essential to approach biomechanical analysis and intervention with a personalised, tailored approach that considers each runner's unique biomechanical characteristics, goals, and limitations.


Running biomechanics is the cornerstone of performance and injury prevention, influencing everything from foot strike patterns to running efficiency and injury risk. By understanding the biomechanics of running and how it relates to your body's movement, you can make informed decisions to optimise your training, reduce the risk of injury, and enhance your overall running experience. Whether through gait analysis, targeted strength training, or technique adjustments, embracing the principles of biomechanics can help you unlock your full potential as a runner and enjoy the countless rewards that running has to offer. 


At Urban Physiotherapy, we are committed to helping athletes of all levels maintain peak performance and stay injury-free. Whether you're recovering from a sports injury or looking to prevent future issues, reach out to us for a thorough assessment and a customised care plan tailored to your needs.

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